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  tpLjiy Nghhpy; ney;iy khtl;l K];ypk;fs;
 
  
,e;jpah vq;fs; jha;ehL
,];yhk; vq;fs; topghL
jkpNo vq;fs; nkhopahFk;
jd;khdk; vq;fs; capuhFk;
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,e;jpa tpLjiy NghUk; K];yPk;fSk;.

cUtpa thSlDk;> cWjpkhwh Neh;ikAlDk; mNugpa ntspfspy; Nghuhba ngUkhdhh; mz;zy; egpfs; (]y;) epiy ehl;ba ,];yhk; khh;f;fj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;l ,e;jpa K];yPk; ngUkf;fs; guq;fpah; ird;aq;fspd; gPuq;fpfSf;Fk;> Jg;ghf;fpfSf;Fk; mQ;rhky; fsq;fz;l rk;gtq;fs; gy. mtw;wpy; ntspr;rj;jpw;F te;jitfs; kpfr;rpy.

,e;jpa Rje;jpu Nghuhl;lj;jpy; K];ypk;fspd; gq;F kfj;jhdJ. Mq;fpNyah;fs; jq;fsJ rhk;uh[;aj;ij %d;W K];yPk; kd;dh;fspd; - tlf;Nf gfJ}h;~h> tq;fj;jpy; rpuh[;-cj;-njsyh> njw;Nf ik#h; rpq;fk; jpg;G Ry;jhd;> ,we;j cly;fspd; kPJjhd; mikf;f Kbe;jJ. Mq;fpNyah;fSf;F rpk;k nrhg;gdkhf jpfo;e;jJ ,k;%th; jhd;. ,e;j kd;dh;fis fz;L mQ;rpaij Nghy;> ,e;jpahtpy; Mq;fpNyah;fs; NtW ahUf;Fk; mQ;rpajpy;iy vd;gJ rhpj;jpuk; $Wk; cz;ik.

,th;fis gw;wp vOJtnjd;gJ> ,e;jf;fl;Liuapd; vy;iyf;F mg;ghw;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; fl;Liuapd; Nehf;fk; jkpo; ehl;by;> mJTk; jpUney;Ntyp khtl;lj;J Rje;jpu Nghuhl;l jpahfpfis ntspr;rj;jpw;F nfhz;L tUtJjhd;.

tpLjiy Nghhpy; ney;iy khtl;l K];ypk;fs;

jpUney;Ntyp Ngl;il K`k;kJ eapdhh; gs;spthry; njUtpy; 1909-y; gpwe;j tp. Nf. mg;Jy;`kPJ 1929 Nghuhl;lj;jpYk; kJiuapy; fs;Sf;fil kwpaypy; 1931 Yk; fye;J nfhz;L rpiw nrd;wth; jpUney;Ntyp efh;kd;w Jizj; jiytuhf ,Ue;jth;. 1-6-1959-y; fhykhdhh;.

fhjh;KifjPd; eapdhh; ,uhTj;jh; Gjy;tuhf 1904-y; gpwe;j mg;Jy; `kPJ Kfk;kJ xj;Jioahikg; Nghhpy; fye;J nfhz;L jpUr;rp rpiwapy; thbath;.

nrq;Nfhl;il NkYiur; Nrh;e;j rhFy; `kPJtpd; kfdhf 1907-y; gpwe;j mg;Jy;k[pj; 1927 Nghuhl;lq;fspYk; rl;l kWg;G ,af;fg; Nghuhl;lq;fspYk; fye;J nfhz;lth;.

Kfk;kJ ,];khapy; Gjy;tuhf 3-7-1904-y; 175 eLg;Ngl;ilj; njU njd;fhrpapy; gpwe;j mg;Jy;ryhk; 1922-y; me;epaj;Jzp vjph;g;G NghhpYk; ehf;g+h; nfhbg;NghhpYk; fye;Jf; nfhz;L xU tUlj;jpw;F Nky; ehf;g+h; rpiwapy; thbath;.

jpUney;Ntyp Ngl;il uFkhdpah gs;spthry; rd;djp njUtpy; tho;e;j mg;Jy; `kPJtpd; Gjy;tuhf 1900-y; gpwe;j Kfk;kJ ,g;uhfpk; 1922 Nghuhl;lj;jpy; fye;Jf;nfhz;L flY}h; rpiwapy; thbath;.

jpUney;Ntyp Ngl;il uFkhdpah gs;spthry; Nkyj;njUitr; Nrh;e;j Kfk;kJ ,];khapy; 1897-y; gpwe;jth;. 1921 Nghuhl;lj;jpYk;; ehf;g+h; nfhbg;NghhpYk; fye;Jf; nfhz;L ehf;g+h; rpiwapy; thbath;.

filaey;Y}h; v].vk; mg;Jy;k[pj; Rje;jpu jkpofj;jpy; ke;jphpahf ,Ue;jth;. ,tuJ FLk;gk; ehl;L tpLjiyf;fhf ey;y njhz;lhw;wpapUf;fpwJ.

njd;fhrp v];.vy;.v]; K`k;kJ KifajPd; 1941-y; Nghh; vjph;g;G gpur;rhuj;jpy; <Lgl;L rpiwj;jz;lid ngw;wth;.

jpUney;Ntyp vk;. KifajPd; ,g;uhfpk; kiuf;fhah; 1894-y; gpwe;jth;. fw;wwpe;jth; 1921 xj;Jioahikg; NghhpYk; 1922-23-y; fs;Sf;fil kwpaypYk; fye;Jf; nfhz;L jpUr;rp rpiwapy; thbath;.

25-11-1923y; gpwe;j J}j;Jf;Fb 47 n[ayhdp njUitr; Nrh;e;j KifajPd; n~hPg; fw;wwpe;jth; 1942 Mf];l; Gul;rpapy; gq;Nfw;wth;.

njd;fhrp jhYfh tpRtehjGuj;ijr; Nrh;e;j Kfk;kJ cird; Gjy;tuhf 1915y; gpwe;j eh$ug;gh ,uhTj;jh; fy;tp gapd;wth;. 1936y; fs;Sf;fil kwpaypYk;> me;epaj;Jzp vjph;g;G NghhpYk; fye;Jf;nfhz;lth;.

nts;is ,uhTj;jhpd; kfdhf 1906-y; njd;fhrpapy; gpwe;j rh`pj; 1942 Mf];l; Gul;rpapy; gq;Nfw;W NtY}hpYk;> jQ;rht+h; rpwg;G n[apypYk; thbath;.

nra;aJ kPuhrhfpg; Gjy;tuhf 1918y; gpwe;j gzFb nra;aJ mfkJ fgPh; 1942 Mf];l; Nghhpy; fye;Jf;nfhz;L mypg;Gwk; n[apypy; thbath;.

jpUney;Ntypapy; 11-7-1914y; gpwe;j nra;aJ [yhy; 1932y; fs;Sf;fil kwpaypYk;> NkYk; me;epaj; Jzp vjph;g;G> jdp egh; rj;jpahf;fpufk; Mfpatw;wpy; gq;Nfw;Wg; ghisaq;Nfhl;il n[apypy; thbath;.

Nkyg;ghisak; tp. v];. b Kfk;kJ ,g;uhfPk; 1942y; nts;isaNd ntspNaW ,af;fj;jpy;; fhq;fpu]; fkpl;b rhh;gpy; jd; gq;fshtpy; ,ufrpakhf Nf.gp.kU~;thyh ntspapl;l fpuhk Rje;jpu gpufldj;ij irf;Nsh];ily; nra;J tpepNahfk; nra;jhh;. hprh;t; NghyPrpd; jbabahy; kaf;fkile;j vk;.Mh;. cyfehjDf;Fj; Jzpe;J rpfpr;ir mspj;jth;. efu fhq;fpu]; fkpl;b jiytuhfTk;> [py;yh fhq;fpu]; fkpl;b cjtpj; jiytuhfTk;> jpUney;Nyp [py;yh Nghh;L nkk;guhfTk;> Nkyg;ghisak; efh; kd;wj; jiytuhfTk; gzpahw;wpa ,tuJ Njrpar; Nrit epiyj;J epw;ff; $baJ.

nra;Fj;jk;gp ghtyuhy; "Nfhit" ghlg;ngw;w ,tuJ je;ijahh; rk;RjhrPd; jufdhh; fpyhgj; Nghhpy; jPtpuq;fhl;bath;.

1926-y; ney;iy khtl;lj;jpy; Rje;jpug; Nghhpy; jPtpug; gq;nfLj;Jf; nfhz;lth;fspy; ,uhjhGuk; jhYfh gzFb mk;[pahd; rh`pg;> fs;sp;Fsk; KifjPd; MfpNahh; Kd;dzpapy; epd;wth;fs;. ehq;FNehp jhYfh fhq;fpu]; fkpl;bapy; jPtpu gzpahw;wp Mw;wpath;fs;. murpd; mlf;F Kiwia vjph;j;J Njrpag; gpur;rhuk; ntw;wpfukhf eilngw fs;spFsk; KifjPd; Jzpr;ryhd nray;fspy; ,wq;fpath;.

KbTiu

,e;jj; jpahfpfs; ntspr;rj;jpw;F te;jth;fs;. jpUtz;zh kiyapy; je;ij nghpahh; jiyikapy; 15-11-1924y; fhq;fpu]; khehL eilngw;wJ. khehl;by; fye;Jf; nfhz;lth;fspy; Kf;fpakhdth;fs; vd;W 21-11-1924 etrf;jp ,jo; nra;jp ntspapl;bUe;jJ. mjpy; ,Ue;j Kjy; ngah; ah$g; `]d;. mtiuj; njhlh;e;Nj ,uh[h[p> v];.rPdpthr Iaq;fhh;, lhf;lh;. Gp.tujuh[Y ehAL> jpU.tp.fy;ahzRe;ju Kjypahh;> kw;Wk; gyhpd; ngah;fSk; ,Ue;jd. Mk; tpLjiyg; Nghhpy; Kd;dzpapy; epd;wth;fs; jkpof K];yPk;fs;.

16-11-1924y; ,uz;lhk; ehs; khehl;by; ehkf;fs; c];khd; rhfpg; jPh;khdk; nfhz;L te;jhh; vd "jpU tp.f. tho;f;if Fwpg;Gfs;" gf;. 331y; cs;sJ.

,th;fs; ahh;? ,th;fs; Mw;wpa gzpfs; vd;d? ,th;fisg; Nghy; ,d;Dk; vj;jid Ngh;? - ,d;Dk; ntspr;rj;jpw;F tutpy;iy.

ek; fz;ziwapd; xspglhky; fy;yiwapy; JapYk; ,e;jj; jpahfpfs;> fhy fhyq;fSf;Fk; K];yPk;fs;> ,e;j kz;zpy; ahUf;Fk; jhohky; jd;khdj;NjhL> epkph;e;j jiyNahL thoTk;> [dehafj;jhy; MsTk;> ehSk; ehSk; cj;Ntfk; je;J nfhz;Nl ,Ug;ghh;fs;. mJ cz;ikj; jpahfpfis kPz;Lk; cUthf;fp Gjpa tuyhWfisg; gilf;Fk;.

   
 
   
 
,e;jf;fl;Liu "tpLjiyg; Nghhpy; jkpof K];yPk;fs;" (Mrphpah; - nr.jpthd;) vd;w E}ypypUe;J njhFf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j E}ypy; Nghh;j;Jf; fPrpah;fis eLeLq;f itj;j khtPuh; FQ;rhyp kiuf;fhah; Kjy; (16Mk; E}w;whz;L)> fz;zpaj;jpw;Fwpa fhapNj kpy;yj; tiuapyhd jkpof K];ypk; Rje;jpu Nghuhl;l tPuh;fis kpf mofhf> Mjhuq;fSld; thpirg;gLj;jp apUf;fpwhh;. xt;nthUth; tPl;bYk;> kw;Wk; gs;sp thry;fspYk; mtrpak; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba E}y;. ,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghhpy; K];ypk;fspd; gq;F k(i)wf;fg;gl;L tUk; ,f;fhy fl;lj;jpy; ,j;jifa E}iy vOjpa Mrphpah; nr.jpthd; kpfTk; ghuhl;Lf;Fwpath;.
   
 
njhFg;G: gPh; K`k;kJ.