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mfpyj;jpw;Nfhh; mUl;nfhilahfj; Njhd;wpa mz;zy; egp (]y;) mth;fs; Nghjpj;j rj;jpa rd;khh;f;f ,];yhk; muG ehl;by; kl;Lkpd;wpf; fly; topahfTk; jiu khh;f;fkhfTk; mfpy cynfq;fpYk; Fwpg;ghf njd;fpof;F kj;jpa fpof;F Mrpa ehLfspy; Ntfkhf tsh;e;Njhq;fp Nt&d;wj; Jtq;fpaJ.

Mrpahtpd; eLNkl;L epyj;jpw;Fj; njw;fpYs;s gFjp KOtJk; rk;Gj;jPT my;yJ ehtye;jPT vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ. ehtye;jPtpy; tpe;jpakiyf;Fj; njw;fpYs;s gFjp jl;rpzhgjk; my;yJ njd;dhL vd;Wk; mjd; njd; Nfhbapy; jkpoh; thOk; ,lk; jkpofk; (jkphpf) vd;Wk; miof;fg; ngw;wd.

kpfj; njhlf;f fhyj;jpypUe;Nj jkpofj;jpd; nghUs; tsq;fs; njhiyJ}u ehLfspd; tzpfh;fspd; ftdj;ij fth;e;J te;jd. fp. gp. MwhtJ E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjp tiu njd;dpe;jpahtpd; Nkw;Ff;fiuf;Fk; fpof;Ffiuf;Fk; tpahghu epkpj;jk; gazk; te;j mNugpau;fspy; rpiytzf;ff; fhuh;fs; fpwp];jth;fs; a+jh;fs; Nghd;Nwhh;fs; ,Ue;jdh;. Mdhy; fp. gp. Vohk; E}w;whz;bd; kj;jpf;Fs;shf mNugpah;fs; midtUNk ,];yhj;jpy; jPtpu gq;nfLj;Jf;nfhz;bUe;jdh;.

Nfhtsj;jpy; jkpKy; md;]hhp(uyp) mth;fsJ mlf;f];jyKk; njd;dhw;fhL khtl;lk; Kfk;kJ ge;jhpy; (guq;fp Ngl;ilapy;) `]uj; mgptf;fh];(uyp) mth;fsJ mlf;f];jyKk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,th;fs; egpfs; ehafj;jpd; Njhoh;fs; (]`hghf;fs;) vd;w me;j];ij ngw;wth;fs;.

]`hghf;fs; gyUk; rkag;gpur;rhuj;jpw;fhf jq;fis mh;gzpj;Jf;nfhz;L cyfpd; gy ghfq;fSf;Fk; gazpj;jdh;. Vw;fdNt ,e;jpahNthL ,Ue;J te;j tzpfj;njhlh;NghL Gjpjhf khh;f;fj; njhlh;Gk; Nrh;e;Jf;nfhd;lJ.

ruf;FfNshLk; FjpiufNshLk; thzpgj;jpw;fhf te;jth;fSk; mth;fSf;F Vty; Ghpa te;jth;fSk; ,q;NfNa jq;fpdh;. jpUkz cwTfis nfhz;ldh;. ,];yhkpa newpKiwfis Vw;Wf;nfhz;l mth;fsJ tho;T jkpofj;jpy; njhlh;e;jJ.

fp.gp. 642-y; kyghu; fiuapYs;s Krpwp JiwKfg;gl;bzj;jpy; (,d;iwa nfhLq;fhSh;;) Kjy; gs;spthry; fl;lg;gl;lJ. mijj;njhlh;e;J jkpoff;fiu neLfpYk; njhOifg; gs;spfs; mf;fhyf; fl;lj;jpNyNa vOe;jd.

jpUr;rp efhpd; eLtpy; nkapd;fhh;L Nfl;bd; mUNf Nfhl;il uapy; epiyak; - rkPgj;jpy; gOJgl;Lf; fhzg;gLk; gs;spthapy; fp.gp 738-y; fl;lg;gl;lJ.

,t;Tz;ikia kdjpy; ,Uj;jpNa ghujg; gpujkh; gz;bj [t`h;yhy; NeU "Discovery of India" vd;w jkJ E}ypy; - " xU murpay; rf;jpahf ghujj;jpw;Fs; ,];yhk; Eiotjw;F rpy E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;dNkNa ,];yhk; xU khh;f;fk; vd;w N`hjhtpy; ,e;ehl;bd; njd;fFjpia mile;Jtpl;lJ" vd;W vOjpAs;shh;.

"my;yh vd te;J re;jpAk;
ee;jhtif njhOk; rPh; ey;yhh;"

vd;W fstpaw; fhhpif mfg;nghUs; ,yf;fz E}ypy; tUfpwJ.

fp.gp vl;lhk; E}w;whz;ilr; Nrh;e;j jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fspy; ,];yhk; Ngrg;gLtjhy; VohtJ E}w;whz;bd; ,WjpapNyNa jkpofj;jpy; ,];yhkpa rKjhaj;jpdhpd; tho;T Jtq;fg;gl;Ltpl;lij cWjp nra;fpwJ.

khh;f;f Nkijfs.;

Nru ehl;L kd;dh; gh];fu utpth;kd; vd;w Nrukhd; ngUkhs; ehadhh; (fp.gp. 780-834) re;jpud; ,uz;lhfg; gpsg;gJ Nghd;W fdT fz;lhh;. ,jd; tpsf;fj;ij mth; muG tzpfh;fsplk; Nfl;lhh;. mjw;F mth;fs; egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) ,iwtdpd; mUshy; re;jpuid ,uz;lhf gpse;J epfo;j;jpa mw;Gjj;ij tpsf;fpdh;. ,jdhy; jpUg;jpaile;j kd;dh; ,];yhj;ij gw;wp NkYk; KOikahf njhpe;Jf; nfhz;L K];ypkhf khwpdhh;. jdJ ngaiu mg;Jh; uFkhd; rhkphp vd khw;wpf; nfhz;lhh;.

`[; flikia epiwNtw;w mNugpah nrd;w mth; mq;NfNa kuzkile;jhh;. md;dhh; mNugpahtpy; ,Ue;jNghJ mtuJ Ntz;LNfhSf;F ,zq;f khypf; ,g;D jPdhh; jiyikapy; ,];yhkpa gpur;rhuf;FO xd;W njd;dpe;jpah te;J jPd; gzpapy; <Lgl;lJ.

ej;jh; ~h`; xypAy;yh`; (fp.gp. 969 - 1039) rphpahit Nrh;e;jth;fs;. nra;aJ tk;rj;ij Nrh;e;j ,th;fs; khh;f;fr; Rw;Wg;gazk; Nkw;nfhz;L ,Wjpapy; jpUr;rp te;jile;jhh;. Rkhh; 700 gpur;rhuh;fis (fye;jh;fs;) cUthf;fp jkpofj;jpy; jPd; gzpia rpwg;ghfr; nra;jhh;.

njd; khtl;lq;fspy; ghgh gf;Uj;jPd; vd;w fhl;L ghth rhfpg; mth;fSk; kJiuapy; `]uj; mypahh; ~h`; ]h`pg; mth;fSk; ,];yhkpag; gzpapid ,d;Kfj;Jld; nra;J nfhz;bUe;jdh;. ,g;nghpahh;fs; Vuhskhd kf;fs; ,];yhj;jpy; ,iztjw;F fhuzkhf ,Ue;jdh;.

,iw Nerr; nry;th; irapj; ,g;uh`pk; nkhNuhf;Nfhtpy; Njhd;wp gpd; ,];yhj;ij gug;Gtjw;fhf (fp.gp. 1142 - 1207) ,e;jpah te;jhh;. ghz;ba kd;dh; FyNrfud; rhh;ghf kw;WnkhU ghz;ba kd;dh; tpf;fpukDld; Nghhpy; <Lgl;lhh;. ,g;Nghhpd; tpisthf murhl;rp irapj; ,g;uh`pk; mth;fs; ifapy; te;jJ. jkpo; ehl;bd; xU gFjpia murhz;l Kjy; K];ypk; kd;dh; (fp.gp. 1195-1207) ,th;fNs.

fp.gp. 1207-y; tPughz;baDld; ele;j kw;WnkhU Nghhpy; ~`Pjhdhh;fs;. ,uhkdhjGuk; Vh;thbapy; ey;ylf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lhh;fs;. (kjpdh efhpd; xU gFjpahd "ah;Gj" vd;w ,lj;jpypUe;J mth;fs; Gwg;gl;L te;jjhy; mth;fs; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;l ,lj;jpw;Fk; "ah;Gj;"vd;Nw ngah; #l;lg;gl;lJ. ,r;nrhy; ehsiltpy; Vh;thb vd;W kUtp tpl;lJ.)

gjpdhwhk; E}w;whz;by; eh$h; rhFy; `kPJ xyp mth;fs; ngUikf;Fhpag; gzpapid Mw;wpdhhfs;. fy;tj;J ehafk; mth;fSk;> nra;aJ Kfk;kJ Mypk; Gyth; mth;fSk; rpwg;ghd gzpapid Mw;wpdhhfs;. nra;F mg;Jy;fhjph; kiuf;fhah; vd;W Fwpg;gpLk; ts;sy; rPjf;fhjp mth;fspd; ez;gUk; fPof;fiuapy; tho;e;jtUkhd Nrf; rjf;fj;Jy;yh mg;gh mth;fsplk; fp.gp. 1622-y; 4000 Ngh;fs; fypkhr; nrhy;yp ,];yhj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;.

   
 
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